All The Incredible Info You Need To Know Right Now About Moringa Seeds

Moringa seeds, weighing in at less than ½ gram each, are having a massive impact on health worldwide!

Moringa Seeds

Moringa seed uses include:

  • Planting for nutrition programs — these are making a huge difference for countless people!
  • Eating for numerous health benefits — this is on the rise!
  • Pressing for Moringa seed oil — it’s medicinal and amazing!
  • Crushing for water purification — a low tech solution to a major problem!

It’s true, people in the developing world have the most extensive use for Moringa seeds, but Moringa seeds can have a significant impact on your health too!

In this article, we will discuss:

Since this article covers several topics related to Moringa seeds, feel free to jump to the section where your interest lies. Just click the link above to make the jump.

Note: There are 13 species of Moringa.  Species range in size from smaller herbs to massive trees. The focus of this article is exclusively Moringa Oliefera: the highest praised and most widely used of the all the Moringa species. s

Eating Moringa Seeds

Eating Moringa Seeds

It is quite challenging to find information about eating Moringa seeds. To be very clear it’s because little information about eating Moringa seeds is known. I have talked to many people, however, who eat Moringa seeds and they tell me about the positive results they’re experiencing. As we collectively learn more, I’ll keep this page updated.

How To Eat Moringa seeds

Moringa seeds have a unique appearance having an outer shell, called a seed coat, with three wings. The wings are very thin and fragile when dry — like tissue paper. When still growing these wings help position and space the seeds within the tri-lobed seed pod.

Dry Moringa Seeds

The outer seed coat can be easily cracked and removed by hand revealing the kernel. The kernel is much smaller and white in appearance if it’s a viable seed. The kernel is also somewhat soft and feels like very dense foam. With some effort, it’s possible to squish the kernel between your thumb and index finger. Although much harder to see, the inner kernel also has a thin seed coat.

It is strongly advised only to eat the kernel as the seed coat is hard and very difficult to chew. Just imagine eating a peanut shell. Don’t worry, removing the inner seed coat from the kernel, which is much more difficult, is not required.

You can eat Moringa seeds in two ways:

  • Chew and swallow like regular food
  • Swallow whole just like a pill

It seems there are as many people swallowing the kernel whole as there are chewing seeds. We recommend chewing the seeds as it doubtful the seeds are fully broken down and metabolized if swallowed whole. If you chew the kernel prepare yourself for a powerful blast of bitterness. And if you want to send your taste buds on a roller coaster ride, drink a glass of water after chewing the kernel. The seeds seem to reprogram taste buds making plain water temporarily taste very sweet. Seriously – give it a try!

How many Moringa Seeds Should You Eat

Currently, there are no official recommendations regarding the number of Moringa seeds to eat per day. The general advice is to start slow, one seed per day, and slowly increase your intake over a few weeks. Most people advice 3-5 seeds per day as a reasonable upper limit.We recommend eating traditional Moringa seeds as they are the most economical. We carry the very best, high purity, large, hand sorted, traditional Moringa Seeds available.

Health Benefits of Moringa Seeds

As you read the list of health benefits related to eating Moringa seeds keep this in mind: no human medical trials have ever been conducted using Moringa seeds. The available research consists of more than a dozen published articles from peer-reviewed journals with rats and mice as the standard test species.

With that in mind, be assured that the absence of human trials doesn’t mean Moringa seeds don’t possess powerful health benefits. It merely means that the research is only in its infancy. As proof, note the publication date of most of the studies: they are within the last decade, many within the last few years. At this point, the findings look very promising! We leave with the impression that there is so much left to uncover regarding the full health benefits of Moringa seeds. Sadly, since no one stands to pocket significant profits from discovering a natural remedy, the funding for research and publishing is lacking.

With that introduction, let’s take a look at publications regarding Moringa seed health benefits. We will start with research about the traditional use of Moringa seeds.

Moringa Seeds In Folk Medicine

Moringa Seeds Traditional Medicine

In 2013 the Journal of Ethnopharmacology published an interesting article. The article was about the local knowledge and use of Moringa in Nigeria .

They discovered that historically Moringa seeds were used as a:

  • Medicine
  • Food source
  • Coagulant (but let’s save this one for later)

As medicine Moringa seeds were eaten raw or after being crushed and ground. Moringa seeds were used to:

  • Relieve stomach pain
  • Treat ulcers
  • Aid digestion
  • Improve poor vision
  • Alleviate joint pain

As a food source, the seeds were roasted as groundnut and eaten whole. Moringa seeds were used as an excellent nutrition source high in:

  • Fat
  • Protein
  • And numerous micronutrients

It’s interesting to note that independent people groups in both Ghana and India also historically used crushed Moringa seeds to:

  • Relieve stomach pain
  • Treat diabetes
  • Lower lipid levels in the liver

Is there any validity to the traditional use of Moringa seeds in Nigeria, Ghana, and India? I suspect the answer is a resounding yes. Let’s take a closer look.

1. Moringa Seeds Kill Germs

We all know it: washing hands is one of the most important steps you can take to avoid getting sick. Washing also dramatically lowers the risk of spreading unwanted germs to others. What you likely haven’t heard is that consuming Moringa seeds can help kill germs and stop them from spreading within your own body! Picture that eating Moringa seeds is like washing away germs that are inside your body. This property of the Moringa seeds is technically called antimicrobial activity.

The antimicrobial activity of Moringa seeds means that they stop the growth of, or directly kill certain micro-organisms including a wide range of:

  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • Viruses

The antimicrobial activity comes from two properties of Moringa seeds:

  • Numerous phytochemical compounds (chemical compounds produced by plants to help them thrive and fight predators, or disease)
  • Short cationic protein know as the M. oleifera cationic protein (a protein uniquely formed within Moringa)

Many of the phytochemical compounds in the Moringa seeds inhibit the growth pathogenic (disease-causing) microorganisms known to cause human infections. The presence of these phytochemical compounds would be good enough, but Moringa seeds pack a one-two punch. The M. oleifera cationic protein is unique to Moringa seeds as the name suggests. This particular protein causes bacterial cell damage by fussing the inner and outer cell membranes of bacteria together. This protein has some other unique uses as well which we will get to later.

With their germ-killing power, it seems the use of Moringa seeds as an alternative medicine to relieve stomach pain is valid after all. Since there are minor or no side effects reported, using Moringa seeds even looks like an attractive alternative treatment.

Ok, pull out a pencil and put a check next to “Relieves stomach pain” and let’s keep going. We still have a pretty long list of so-called “folk” medicinal uses of Moringa seeds left to investigate.

2. Moringa Seeds Alleviate Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Digestive and Colon Problems)

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammatory condition of the colon and small intestines. Main types of IBD are:

  • Crohn’s disease (inflammation of the lining of your digestive tract)
  • Ulcerative colitis (long term inflammation accompanied by sores known as ulcers in the lining of colon and rectum)

The symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease include:

  • Diarrhea and very loose stools
  • Fever and fatigue
  • Abdominal pain and cramping
  • Blood in stool from rectal bleeding
  • Reduced appetite leading to unintended weight loss

A study published in 2014 tested the effect of Moringa seed extract against ulcerative colitis in rats. The results were very positive and showed rats with colitis treated with Moringa seed extract had reduced:

  • Severity of inflammation
  • Extent of inflammation
  • Crypt damage (damage to the intestinal lining)

Moringa passed the test as an anti-inflammatory and antiulcer medicinal plant. The authors concluded the Moringa seed extract is an effective treatment against IBD. They even went on to say that consuming moringa seed extract, even at low doses, should be considered as an alternative remedy for IBD symptoms and as a means of prevention!

Put a check beside “Treats ulcers” and “Aids digestion”. Maybe there is something to the historical use of Moringa seeds after all.

3. Moringa Seeds Help Alleviate Arthritis

Arthritis is the inflammation of joints. Symptoms include joint:

  • Pain and tenderness
  • Swelling, redness, and warmth
  • Stiffness with a loss of joint range of motion

In 2007, a study was conducted on the use of Moringa seed extract against inflammation associated with arthritis. After a 21 day trial, some important conclusions were made.

Moringa seed extract:

  • Contains significant anti-arthritic activity against developing arthritis
  • May even have a positive effect on already-established arthritis

Add a check beside “Alleviates joint pain”.  Perhaps all of these confirmations are just coincidence — what about Moringa seeds and diabetes?

4. Moringa Seeds Fight Against Diabetes

In a study published in 2015 Moringa seed powder was used directly to combat diabetes in rats. A group of rats in the study were induced with type 1 diabetes by the injection of streptozotocin (STZ). This is typical practice for testing the effectiveness of treatments against diabetes. A subgroup of the diabetic rats was treated for four additional weeks with Moringa seed powder. Below are the results of the test on diabetic rats treated with Moringa seed powder:

  • After 21 days all physiological changes caused by diabetes in rats were minimized with levels approaching the same levels as rats with no diabetes.
  • The anatomy of the kidney and pancreas were fully restored
  • The function of the kidney and pancreas were completely restored with no pathological changes

It was concluded that that Moringa seed powder was a safe and excellent treatment possessing antidiabetic properties! The diabetic rats were nearly restored to the very same condition as normal healthy rats. Perhaps the most exciting result was the authors following suggestion: lower doses of Moringa seed powder may possess even greater medical benefits when used a food supplement in diabetic peoples’ diet.

Sharpen your pencil and add a check beside “Treats diabetes” before reading any further.

5. Moringa Seeds Can Protect the Liver

The liver is a large organ weighing in at about three pounds. Located on the right side of the belly and protected by the rib cage the liver is critical to bodily health. The liver carries out an astonishing 500 bodily functions! One essential role the liver carries out is filtering the blood coming from the digestive tract. Before this blood passes back to the rest of the body, the liver is there to make sure the blood is pure and clean. The liver also has to detoxify chemicals and metabolize drugs. Considering the role the liver has, it’s not hard to understand that the liver can be susceptible to toxicity. Unfortunately, this toxicity can cause liver cell damage. The first two most common causes of liver toxicity and damage are hepatitis C virus (HCV) and excessive alcohol consumption.

When a substance can protect and prevent the liver from damage, it is said to be hepatoprotective.

A study from 2010 reported that Moringa seeds possess hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties against liver damage and fibrosis.

It’s worth noting that many of the effects observed in the testing of Moringa seeds against liver damage were comparable to the results observed for silymarin, a drug known to have hepato-protective and anti-fibrotic properties.

Go ahead, scratch out “Lower lipid levels in the liver” and replace it with “Protects the Liver” then check it off. If you are still reading, we applaud your dedication.  We aren’t done yet though; Moringa seeds have a lot more to offer!

6. Moringa seeds have Antitumor Properties

In 2017 an article was published documenting the research of Moringa seed extract for the treatment of cancer. It documented that Moringa seed powder has an anti-proliferative effect on the MCF7 breast cancer cell.

Additionally, many of the bioactive compounds isolated from Moringa seeds are potential antitumor promoters.

Considering nearly one in eight women in the U.S. will develop breast cancer over their lifetime, any help to possibly prevent it by utilizing something as simple as eating Moringa seeds is welcome!

7. Moringa Seeds Can Help with Asthma

Asthma is a reversible condition in which airways become inflamed. This inflammation results in swelling that narrows the airways and, making matters worse, is accompanied by excess mucus production. Asthma can be limited to that of a minor nuisance to a life-threatening condition.

A journal article published in 2007 investigated the use of Moringa seed extract for treating Asthma in rats. The research should very positive results!

Treatment with Moringa seed extract has indeed been found to alleviate asthma by decreasing the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lungs and reducing the secretion of inflammatory mediators, like mucus, into the airways.

8. Moringa Seeds contain Powerful Anti-oxidants

A review of the antioxidant activity of Moringa published in 2009 stated that Moringa seeds are full of antioxidants. These powerful antioxidants can reduce oxidative damage associated with aging and cancer. They noted that the leaves contained an even higher antioxidant activity level.

9. Moringa Seeds Improve Cardiovascular Health

In 2016 a study was conducted using Moringa seed powder to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). Crushed Moringa seeds were fed to hypertensive rats over an 8 week period.

It was discovered eating the seed powder:

  • Reduced nocturnal heart rate
  • Improved cardiac diastolic function (the ability of the heart to relax and fill with incoming blood)
  • Left ventricular anterior wall thickness, interseptal thickness during diastole, and relative wall thickness was reduced (wall thickness increases as a response to the continuous elevated blood pressure and is negative)
  • A significant reduction in fibrosis in the left ventricle was also observed (fibrosis in the left ventricle reduces blood flow to the right side of the heart causing many further complications including increasing blood pressure even higher)
  • Blood pressure itself wasn’t changed

Since Moringa seeds showed multiple positive effects on the cardiovascular system, it was concluded that there is a scientific rationale for the use of Moringa seed powder against heart diseases caused by high blood pressure.

Additionally, a similar study published in 2017 confirmed these results and conclusion. They concluded their data supports the use of Moringa seeds in one’s diet to combat cardiovascular disorder associated with oxidative stress and hypertension, scientifically validating the use of these seeds in some traditional forms of medicine.

10. Moringa Seeds Inhibit Anaphylactic Shock

Anaphylactic shock is often life-threatening. It’s an allergic reaction to an antigen (a molecule capable of causing an immune response) which the body has become hypersensitive. Symptoms of anaphylactic shock often occur within minutes, sometimes even seconds after exposure and include:

  • Skin rashes and hives – usually itchy
  • Swelling of the throat or mouth
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Tightness in the chest
  • A rapid drop in blood pressure leading to the dizziness or fainting
  • Nausea possibly inducing vomiting and or diarrhea

In 2007 one study published the results of testing Moringa seed extract against anaphylactic shock. In the study, mice were induced into a state of anaphylaxis through an injection. By first administering Moringa seed extract to the mice, the injection to trigger anaphylaxis was completely inhibited: absolutely no signs of anaphylactic shock were observed! The authors concluded that the results suggested Moringa seed extract could be a potential anti-anaphylactic agent to fight against allergic disorders. Perhaps just a Moringa seed a day of prevention could go a long way to minimizing occurrences of anaphylactic shock!

Final Thoughts On The Health Benefits Of Moringa Seeds

The medical community and laboratories around the world will no doubt continue to research Moringa seeds and their health benefits. I certainly appreciate the hard work and effort! But as we look forward to the progress and findings, we also look back and appreciate the wisdom of those who have gone before us. Knowledge was gained through generations of testing and observing — using natural remedies to make the world a better place. We appreciate both approaches and especially the space where the two worlds intersect.

If you are interested in purchasing high purity and high-quality traditional Moringa seeds, look no further, we carry the very best traditional Moringa seeds available.

Moringa Seeds Varieties

Ever ask any of the following questions?

  • Why all the different varieties of Moringa seeds?
  • Which Moringa seeds are the best to buy for eating?
  • Which Moringa seeds are the best to buy for planting?
  • What is a PKM-1 Moringa seed?
  • What are Hybrid Moringa Seeds?
  • Are some types of Moringa seeds GMO?

By the end of this section, all these questions and more should be answered.

Four Main Varieties of Moringa Seeds

There are four main varieties for purchase. The first two seed varieties are readily available with well-documented characteristics. The second two varieties are very expensive, hard to find, and we haven’t been able to verify the production numbers from a 3rd party. Additionally, there are a few other Moringa seed varieties which have even less information available about them or are very new to the market.

The four main varieties of Moringa seeds are:

  • Traditional Moringa Seeds (Highly recommended)
  • PKM-1 Moringa Seeds (Highly recommended)
  • PKM-2 Moringa Seeds (Informational Only – Unsure if claims are True)
  • MOMAX3 Moringa Seeds (Informational Only – Unsure if claims are True)

Note: We sell traditional and PKM-1 seeds. We are investigating the claims of  PKM-2 and MOMAX3 Moringa seeds! All seeds from A Healthy Leaf are of high purity and have been hand selected on appearance and size. Seeds are considered Grade A seeds. They show higher uniformity, are larger and darker than average Moringa seeds. Seeds also have an excellent germination rate of over 90% under ideal conditions.  

Traditional Moringa seeds

Traditional Moringa seeds also referred to as ‘local’ variety Moringa seeds produce an annual tree which takes years to reach peak leaf and seed pod production. These are the lowest cost seeds and in turn, also have the lowest leaf and seed pod production. That being said the leaves and seeds pods are incredibly nutritious, as all Moringa is.

Traditional Moringa seeds varieties:

  • Reach a height of up to 33 feet (10 meters)
  • Produce seed pods about 12 months after planting
  • Average 230 pods per year
  • Grow pods that average 3 oz (85 grams) in weight and 25 in long (~65 cm)
  • Produce an average of 18 kg of seed pods per year

Traditional Moringa seeds are best for someone wanting to grow Moringa in their backyard for the lowest price possible. They are also perfect for eating as they are economical and just as nutritious as more expensive seed types.

PKM-1 Moringa Seeds

PKM-1 Seeds were developed by the Periyakulam Horticultural College and Research Institute, in Tamil Nadu India in 1989. They are a pure line seed developed by self breeding a local Indian variety, collected from Eppothumvendran in the Tirunelveli region, for 6 generations. In each generation, only the long pods and desirable features were selected and used for the next generation. PKM-1 seeds produce a larger yield of leaves and seed pods compared to traditional moringa seeds. They have been widely adopted by commercial growers throughout India and are the most popular seed type planted. Many commercial farms will replant PKM-1 seeds after three years to obtain maximum output from their Moringa crop.

Moringa trees planted from PKM-1 seeds:

  • Reach a height of 13-20 feet (4 to 6 meters)
  • Reach maximum production within 2-3 years of planting
  • Decrease in seed pod production after year 3
  • Flower as soon as 90 days after planting
  • Produce seed pods ready to harvest as a vegetable as early as 160 days after planting
  • Average 220 seed pods per year.
  • Grow pods that average:
    • 5.25 oz (150 grams) in weight
    • 30 in (~75 cm) in length
    • 2.5 in (6.3 cm) in girth
  • Produce an average of 33 kg of seed pods per year
  • Can produce 12 tons of leaves per acre (30 tons/ha) with high-density planting
  • Have fleshy pods with up to 70% flesh

PKM-1 Moringa seeds are best for intense Moringa plantings or for realizing earlier fruit bearing with more increased flesh vs. traditional Moringa seeds. They also have the benefit of higher seed pod production and better leaf taste! These are the most commonly used Moringa seed for plantations.

*PKM-2 Moringa Seeds

PKM-2 Moringa seeds were developed in 2000, 11 years after PKM-1 seeds hit the market. They are a hybrid derivative seed being a cross between MP 31 (Eppothum Vendran local) and MP 28 (Arasaradi local): two local Moringa varieties. Like the PKM-1, this variety was also developed by the Periyakulam Horticultural College and Research Institute.

Moringa trees planted from PKM-2 seeds:

    • Have more lateral branching
    • Reach maximum production within 2-3 years of planting
    • Decrease in seed pod production after year 3
    • Flower as soon as 90 days after planting
    • Produce seed pods ready to harvest as a vegetable as early as 160 days after planting
    • Average 220 seed pods per year.
    • Grow pods that average:
      • 10 oz (280 grams) in weight
      • 50 in  (~125 cm) in length
      • 3.3 in (8.4cm ) in girth
    • Produce an average of 60 kg of seed pods per year
    • Have fleshy pods with up to 70% flesh
    • Have recorded an average production of 98 metric tons of seed pods per hectare

*These seeds are difficult to source reliably. We are unsure if production numbers are verified as limited information is available. 

**MOMAX3 Moringa Seeds

MOMAX3 Moringa seeds were developed from 2008 – 2016 by the advanced Biofuel Center (ABC) in India. ABC is a crop science company whose stated goal is to produce the worlds finest seed varieties. ABC started by collecting 42 high yielding local varieties of Moringa seeds and evaluating them genetically as well as on physical growth characteristics. Through their research, development and years of selective breeding, they created a new variety in 2016: MOMAX3 also known as Maru-Moringa Seeds.

Moringa trees planted from MOMAX3 seeds:

  • Are Perennial with a 15-20 year life-span
  • Flower as soon as 110 days after planting
  • Produce seed pods ready to harvest as a vegetable as early as 176 days after planting
  • Average 350-500 seed pods in year one
  • Average 800-1200 seed pods in year two and later
  • Produce seeds pods with 16-18 seeds per pod
  • Produce seeds with 40% more oil than average
  • Produce an average of 7 metric tons of seeds per hectare (equivalent to more than 950 gallons of oil)

MOMAX3 varieties flower early like PKM-1/PKM-2 seeds and start bearing fruit 4 to 6 months after planting. Seed pod production per tree is an astounding 800-1000 per year and pods are longer with more seeds than average. Also, seeds have up to 40% more oil content than other Moringa seeds. With all of these factors combined the average yield of seeds per hectare is seven metric tons vs. only one metric ton for PKM-1. ABC reports that MOMAX3 will produce more than 950 gallons of Moringa oil per hectare. No other Moringa variety even comes close.

*We couldn’t find any 3rd party with experience growing MOMAX3 seeds. All information came from ABC directly. We include for informational purposed only but we are unsure if the claims are true.  MOMAX3 Moringa seeds are extremely expensive at about 8x more than PKM-1 seeds!

Other Moringa Seeds

There are a handful of other companies who have also selectively bred desirable traits and have added a name to the seeds. One such variety is named ODC Moringa seeds. A selective variety of the ODC has also been marketed recently and referred to as ODC3.

ODC3 harvesting of seed pods begins as soon as 160 days after planting. Average seed pod production is 300 pods per tree per year. Seed pods are reported to reach an average length and girth which is nearly identical to the PKM-1. The weight, however, is claimed to be only 2.5 oz (75 grams) per pod which is only about half the weight of PKM-1 seed pods.  The ODC3 variety is said to be highly productive for 10-15 years averaging 20-30 tons per acre of seed pod production. Since this variety has only recently hit the market, time will tell if it has real benefits over PKM-1 seeds. It appears to offer close to PKM-1 productivity with a potential longer production life.

Finally, a so-called ‘dwarf’ variety of Moringa seed is available online from a major seed retailer. It is stated to be from India and especially suited for container growing. The claim is that the tree will remain short when grown in a container allowing easy overwintering indoors. We have no experience with this ‘dwarf’ Moringa seed. From our experience, however, any Moringa tree planted in a container will act as a ‘dwarf’ Moringa tree. As soon as the large and fast-growing tap root becomes root bound in a container the upward growth is limited. We suggest taking a pass on the ‘dwarf’ variety and buying a well known Moringa seed variety.

Final Thoughts On Moringa Seed Varieties

Whatever your Moringa seed needs are we can help. We sell traditional and PKM-1 seeds with PKM-2 and MOMAX3 Moringa seeds coming soon! All seeds are of high purity and have been hand selected on appearance and size. Seeds are considered Grade A seeds. They show higher uniformity, are larger and darker than average Moringa seeds. Seeds also have an excellent germination rate of over 90% under ideal conditions.   

Thankfully there currently are no genetically modified Moringa seeds. All seed varieties are from selective breeding for desirable traits.

Moringa seeds for Water Purification

Each year more than 5 million people worldwide are killed by water-related diseases. That reality is staggering — especially to those in developed countries that have never gone without purified tap water.

Unfortunately, most research and development of water purification systems is carried out in developed countries for developed countries. Typically a water purification system uses aluminum sulfate as a coagulant to clarify water and chlorine as a disinfectant to purify the water.

Turbid vs. Clear water

In developing countries, particularly in rural areas, a water purification system designed around using aluminum sulfate and chlorine isn’t feasible. Sadly it’s these same places that have grossly contaminated groundwater and desperately need a solution.

Imagine drinking water from the bottle pictured on the left. This is known as turbid water as it has small particles suspended throughout. These particles make drinking turbid water taste terrible and gritty but that’s not the worst part! The particles and water contain very harmful and even deadly microorganisms.

If a solution existed that was low cost, and readily available that could clarify turbid water and kill the microorganisms the impact could be enormous!

One such solution is the tiny Moringa seed!

Studies testing the effectiveness of Moringa seeds for treating water were first conducted in the early 1970’s.  The studies have shown that Moringa seeds are very effective at removing suspended particles from the water and also 90-99% effective at killing bacteria within the water .

For water purification seeds can be crushed and ground to a powder for use or the leftover seed cake from pressing seeds for oil can be used. Typically about two seeds treat one liter of water. The powder or seed cake can be added to a container with the turbid water and mixed in well. In an hour or two, the water is clear and all previously suspended particles will be settled on the bottom of the container. The clear water should then be poured off the top of the container for direct use, storage or secondary purification.

It’s exciting to see all the ways Moringa seeds are being used to really make a difference in the world.

 

Please help spread the news, you never know who you might end up helping…

…because when it comes to better health, knowledge is power!

 

 


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